Superposition, Electron Spin, Measurement and Clinical Trials


Superposition Electron Spin

Electrons have several attributes - mass, charge, angular momentum and spin. Spin can only be Spin Up or Spin Down. Superposition is another property of quantum objects - for an electron, it means that it can be both Spin Up and Spin Down at the same time because of its wave function. But when you look using a measuring device, the wave function collapses and the electron will be either Spin Up or Spin Down, not both. This is just not intuitive but counterintuitive.

Introduction to Quantum Mechanics - The Double Slit Experiment: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aj5f1U6GEX8

Look AHEAD Superposition

The $250 million Look AHEAD trial was designed to answer the question - Does aggressive lifestyle intervention (regular exercise, weight loss and healthier diet) in obese patients with type 2 diabetes reduce cardiovascular events?

In the beginning the answer is both Yes and No. The study went on for eleven years, and when the researchers looked and measured the data, the answer was unfortunately No.

Why not look and examine the data at 5 years and stop the trial because of futility then, instead of waiting 11 years before doing so. Was the design of the trial flawed and resulted in the unexpected conclusion? Dr. Anne Peters made the announcement.

MH Model Trial Superposition

This is another costly trial. The Million Hearts Model Trial was designed to answer the question - do financial incentives improve clinical performance measures?

In the beginning, the answer is both Yes and No. At the end of five years, looking at the data, the answer will be either Yes or No. Perhaps, the data should be looked at every year. If No after two consecutive years, either re-examine the protocol and make adjustments if that is possible or just stop the trial and start a new one with a different design.

Of course, clinical trials are not quantum objects but idea of looking to see what is happening makes sense. 

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